Peripheral Arterial Disease

Definition


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<p><img src= Peripheral artery disease is also likely to be a sign of a more widespread accumulation of fatty deposits in your arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition may be reducing blood flow to your heart and brain, as well as your legs.


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Symptoms


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Peripheral artery disease symptoms include:

  • Painful Cramping In Your Hip, Thigh Or Calf Muscles After Activity, Such As Walking Or Climbing Stairs (Intermittent Claudication)
  • Leg Numbness Or Weakness
  • Coldness In Your Lower Leg Or Foot, Especially When Compared With The Other Side
  • Sores On Your Toes, Feet Or Legs That Won't Heal
  • A Change In The Color Of Your Legs
  • Hair Loss Or Slower Hair Growth On Your Feet And Legs
  • Slower Growth Of Your Toenails
  • Shiny Skin On Your Legs
  • No Pulse Or A Weak Pulse In Your Legs Or Feet
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    If Peripheral Artery Disease Progresses, Pain May Even Occur When You're At Rest Or When You're Lying Down (Ischemic Rest Pain). It May Be Intense Enough To Disrupt Sleep. Hanging Your Legs Over The Edge Of Your Bed Or Walking Around Your Room May Temporarily Relieve The Pain.

When To See A Doctor

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You Are:

  • Over Age 70
  • Over Age 50 And Have A History Of Diabetes Or Smoking
  • Under Age 50, But Have Diabetes And Other Peripheral Artery Disease Risk Factors, Such As Obesity Or High Blood Pressure

Causes


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Risk factors


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  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity (A Body Mass Index Over 30)
  • High Blood Pressure (140/90 Millimeters Of Mercury Or Higher)
  • High Cholesterol (Total Blood Cholesterol Over 240 Milligrams Per Deciliter, Or 6.2 Millimoles Per Liter)
  • Increasing Age, Especially After Reaching 50 Years Of Age
  • A Family History Of Peripheral Artery Disease, Heart Disease Or Stroke
  • High Levels Of Homocysteine, A Protein Component That Helps Build And Maintain Tissue People Who Smoke Or Have Diabetes Have The Greatest Risk Of Developing Peripheral Artery Disease Due To Reduced Blood Flow.

Complications


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  • Critical Limb Ischemia.This Condition Begins As Open Sores That Don't Heal, An Injury, Or An Infection Of Your Feet Or Legs. Critical Limb Ischemia Occurs When Such Injuries Or Infections Progress And Can Cause Tissue Death (Gangrene), Sometimes Requiring Amputation Of The Affected Limb.

  • Stroke And Heart Attack. The Atherosclerosis That Causes The Signs And Symptoms Of Peripheral Artery Disease Isn't Limited To Your Legs. Fat Deposits Also Build Up In Arteries Supplying Your Heart And Brain.

Tests And Diagnosis


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  • Physical Exam. Your Doctor May Find Signs Of Pad During A Physical Examination, Such As A Weak Or Absent Pulse Below A Narrowed Area Of Your Artery, Whooshing Sounds (Bruits) Over Your Arteries That Can Be Heard With A Stethoscope, Evidence Of Poor Wound Healing In The Area Where Your Blood Flow Is Restricted, And Decreased Blood Pressure In Your Affected Limb.

  • Ankle-Brachial Index (Abi). This Is A Common Test Used To Diagnose Pad. It Compares The Blood Pressure In Your Ankle With The Blood Pressure In Your Arm. To Get A Blood Pressure Reading, Your Doctor Uses A Regular Blood Pressure Cuff And A Special Ultrasound Device To Evaluate Blood Pressure And Flow. You May Walk On A Treadmill And Have Readings Taken Before And Immediately After Exercising To Capture The Severity Of The Narrowed Arteries During Walking.

  • Ultrasound. Special Ultrasound Imaging Techniques, Such As Doppler Ultrasound, Can Help Your Doctor Evaluate Blood Flow Through Your Blood Vessels And Identify Blocked Or Narrowed Arteries.

  • Angiography. By Injecting A Dye (Contrast Material) Into Your Blood Vessels, This Test Allows Your Doctor To View Blood Flow Through Your Arteries As It Happens. Your Doctor Is Able To Trace The Flow Of The Contrast Material Using Imaging Techniques, Such As X-Ray Imaging Or Procedures Called Magnetic Resonance Angiography (Mra) Or Computerized Tomography Angiography (Cta). Catheter Angiography Is A More Invasive Procedure That Involves Guiding A Catheter Through An Artery In Your Groin To The Affected Area And Injecting The Dye That Way. Although Invasive, This Type Of Angiography Allows For Simultaneous Diagnosis And Treatment — Finding The Narrowed Area Of A Blood Vessel And Then Widening It With An Angioplasty Procedure Or Administering Medication To Improve Blood Flow.

  • Blood Tests. A Sample Of Your Blood Can Be Used To Measure Your Cholesterol And Triglycerides And To Check For Diabetes.

Treatments And Drugs


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  • Cholesterol-Lowering Medications. You May Take A Cholesterol-Lowering Drug Called A Statin To Reduce Your Risk Factor Of Heart Attack And Stroke. The Goal For People Who Have Peripheral Artery Disease Is To Reduce Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol, The "Bad" Cholesterol, To Less Than 100 Milligrams Per Deciliter (Mg/Dl), Or 2.6 Millimoles Per Liter (Mmol/L). The Goal Is Even Lower If You Have Additional Major Risk Factors For Heart Attack And Stroke, Especially Diabetes Or Continued Smoking. Peripheral Vascular Disease In Africa

  • High Blood Pressure Medications. If You Also Have High Blood Pressure, Your Doctor May Prescribe Medications To Lower It. The Goal Of This Therapy Is To Reduce Your Systolic Blood Pressure (The Top Number Of The Two Numbers) To 140 Millimeters Of Mercury (Mm Hg) Or Lower And Your Diastolic Blood Pressure (The Bottom Number) To 90 Mm Hg Or Lower. If You Have Diabetes, Your Blood Pressure Target Is Under 130/80 Mm Hg.

  • Medication To Control Blood Sugar. If You Also Have Diabetes, It Becomes Even More Important To Control Your Blood Sugar (Glucose) Levels. Talk With Your Doctor About What Your Blood Sugar Goals Are And What Steps You Need To Take To Achieve These Goals.

  • Medications To Prevent Blood Clots. Because Peripheral Artery Disease Is Related To Reduced Blood Flow To Your Limbs, It's Important To Reduce Your Risk Of Blood Clots. A Blood Clot Can Completely Block An Already Narrowed Blood Vessel And Cause Tissue Death. Your Doctor May Prescribe Daily Aspirin Therapy Or Another Medication That Helps Prevent Blood Clots, Such As Clopidogrel (Plavix). Peripheral Vascular Disease In USA

  • Symptom-Relief Medications. The Drug Cilostazol (Pletoz) Increases Blood Flow To The Limbs Both By Preventing Blood Clots And By Widening The Blood Vessels. It Specifically Helps Treat Symptoms Of Claudication, Such As Leg Pain, For People Who Have Peripheral Artery Disease. Common Side Effects Of This Medication Include Headache And Diarrhea. An Alternative To Cilostazol Is Pentoxifylline (Trental); However, It's Generally Less Effective. But, Side Effects Are Rare With This Medication.

Angioplasty And Surgery

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  • Angioplasty. In This Procedure, A Small Hollow Tube (Catheter) Is Threaded Through A Blood Vessel To The Affected Artery. There, A Small Balloon On The Tip Of The Catheter Is Inflated To Reopen The Artery And Flatten The Blockage Into The Artery Wall, While At The Same Time Stretching The Artery Open To Increase Blood Flow. Your Doctor May Also Insert A Mesh Framework Called A Stent In The Artery To Help Keep It Open. This Is The Same Procedure Doctors Use To Open Heart Arteries.

  • Bypass Surgery. Your Doctor May Create A Graft Bypass Using A Vessel From Another Part Of Your Body Or A Blood Vessel Made Of Synthetic Fabric. This Technique Allows Blood To Flow Around — Or Bypass — The Blocked Or Narrowed Artery.

  • Thrombolytic Therapy. If You Have A Blood Clot Blocking An Artery, Your Doctor May Inject A Clot-Dissolving Drug Into Your Artery At The Point Of The Clot To Break It Up.

Supervised Exercise Program

Peripheral Vascular Disease In Africa, Peripheral Vascular Disease In UK, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  USA, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  India, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  Ahmedabad, Peripheral Vascular Disease In Gujarat In Addition To Medications Or Surgery, Your Doctor May Prescribe A Supervised Exercise Training Program To Increase The Distance You Can Walk Pain-Free. Regular Exercise Improves Symptoms Of PAD By A Number Of Methods, Including Helping Your Body Use Oxygen More Efficiently.

Lifestyle And Home Remedies


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  • Stop Smoking. Smoking Contributes To Constriction And Damage Of Your Arteries And Is A Significant Risk Factor For The Development And Worsening Of PAD. If You Smoke, Quitting Is The Most Important Thing You Can Do To Reduce Your Risk Of Complications. If You're Having Trouble Quitting On Your Own, Ask Your Doctor About Smoking Cessation Options, Including Medications To Help You Quit.

  • Exercise. This Is A Key Component. Success In Treatment Of PAD Is Often Measured By How Far You Can Walk Without Pain. Proper Exercise Helps Condition Your Muscles To Use Oxygen More Efficiently. Your Doctor Can Help You Develop An Appropriate Exercise Plan. He Or She May Refer You To A Claudication Exercise Rehabilitation Program.

  • Eat A Healthy Diet. A Heart-Healthy Diet Low In Saturated Fat Can Help Control Your Blood Pressure And Cholesterol Levels, Which Contribute To Atherosclerosis.

  • Avoid Certain Cold Medications. Over-The-Counter Cold Remedies That Contain Pseudoephedrine (Advil Cold & Sinus, Aleve Sinus & Headache, Claritin-D, Sudafed, Tylenol Cold, Zyrtec-D, Others) Constrict Your Blood Vessels And May Increase Your PAD Symptoms.

Careful Foot Care

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  • Wash Your Feet Daily, Dry Them Thoroughly And Moisturize Often To Prevent Cracks That Can Lead To Infection. Don't Moisturize Between The Toes, However, As This Can Encourage Fungal Growth.
  • Wear Well-Fitting Shoes And Thick, Dry Socks.
  • Promptly Treat Any Fungal Infections Of The Feet, Such As Athlete's Foot.
  • Take Care When Trimming Your Nails.
  • Avoid Walking Barefoot.
  • Have A Foot Doctor (Podiatrist) Treat Bunions, Corns Or Calluses.
  • See Your Doctor At The First Sign Of A Sore Or Injury To Your Skin.

Case Study


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Peripheral Vascular Disease In Africa, Peripheral Vascular Disease In UK, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  USA, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  India, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  Ahmedabad, Peripheral Vascular Disease In Gujarat 60 Yr Old Pt Presented With Resting Claudication In Right Leg.
Angiography Shows Right Popliteal Artery Block.

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Peripheral Vascular Disease In Africa, Peripheral Vascular Disease In UK, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  USA, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  India, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  Ahmedabad, Peripheral Vascular Disease In Gujarat Shows Partially Opened Popliteal Artery After Ballon Angioplasty.


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Peripheral Vascular Disease In Africa, Peripheral Vascular Disease In UK, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  USA, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  India, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  Ahmedabad, Peripheral Vascular Disease In Gujarat Shows Partially Opened Popliteal Artery After Ballon Angioplasty.

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Peripheral Vascular Disease In Africa, Peripheral Vascular Disease In UK, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  USA, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  India, Peripheral Vascular Disease In  Ahmedabad, Peripheral Vascular Disease In Gujarat Finally put a stent & shows good run of through popliteal artery. Pt’s pain is gone.