Vascular Malformation

Introduction


What is a vascular malformation?

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Classification of Vascular Anomalies

Vascular anomalies are divided into two groups:

A. Tumors e.g. hemangiomas

B. Vascular malformations


Malformations are categorized according to type and flow

characteristics:
1)High-flow vascular anomalies include arteriovenous fistula channel (AVF) and arteriovenous malformations (AVM).
2) Low-flow malformations include capillary malformations (CM), venous malformations (VM) and lymphatic (LM) malformations.


Some patients have combined channel anomalies (e.g. Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome (CLVM)):


Venous malformations (VMs)

may cause pain where ever they are located. Venous and lymphatic malformations may cause a lump under the skin. There may be an overlying birthmark on the skin. Bleeding or lymph fluid leaking may occur from skin lesions. Lymphatic malformations tend to become infected, requiring repeated antibiotic treatments. Venous and lymphatic malformations may be associated with a syndrome called Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome.


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Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)

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Hemangioma

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Symptom


Why do these vascular malformations occur?

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What are the symptoms of a vascular malformation?

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Treatment


How do I find out of I have one of these vascular malformations?

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How are these malformations treated?

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What is the recovery time for the procedure?

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The venous and lymphatic malformations also require one night in the hospital. These malformations swell after treatment with sclerosant, and the swelling and pain may last for 3-5 days. During this time, we give patients medication for any pain or swelling they may have. The full shrinkage of these malformations may take four to six weeks. Vascular Interventional Radiologist in USA


How effective is the treatment?

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Other arteriovenous malformations are more difficult to treat since they tend to pull in new artery feeders from time to time. However, embolization is very effective in blocking abnormal artery feeders while preserving normal arteries. AVMs may require a series of treatments to block all of the abnormal feeders.

Venous and lymphatic malformations respond well to alcohol embolization. These may also require a series of treatments about 6 weeks apart to block all of the abnormal vessels. Vascular Surgeon In UK

All vascular malformations require long term surveillance, so that if there is any change, such as a growth spurt with puberty or pregnancy or menopause, they can be monitored for symptoms that may warrant rechecking and possibly retreating. We monitor PAVMs over time to be sure they collapse and do not refill. Vascular Surgeon In USA


How new is this technique?

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What is the best age to have treatment?

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Case


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